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Woodhams, Douglas C., Julia McCartney, Jenifer B. Walke, Ross Whetstone. (2023) The Adaptive Microbiome Hypothesis and Immune Interactions in Amphibian Mucus. Developmental and Comparative Immunology, in press.


Bradford, Emma L, Noah Wax, Emma K. Bueren, Jenifer B. Walke, Richard Fell, Lisa K. Belden, David C. Haak. (2022) Comparative genomics of Lactobacillaceae from the gut of honey bees, Apis mellifera, from the Eastern US. G3 Genes|Genomes|Genetics 12(12)

Peixoto, Raquel, Christian R Voolstra, Michael Sweet, Carlos M. Duarte, Susana Carvalho, Helena Villela, Jeantine E Lunshof, Lone Gram, Douglas C. Woodhams, Jens Walter, Anna Roik, Ute Hentschel, Rebecca Vega Thurber, Brendan Daisley, Blake Ushijima, Daniele Daffonchio, Rodrigo Costa, Tina Keller-Costa, Jeff S. Bowman, Alexandre S. Rosado, Gregor Reid, Christopher E. Mason, Jenifer B. Walke, Torsten Thomas, Gabriele Berg. (2022) Harnessing the microbiome to prevent global biodiversity loss. Nature Microbiology 7: 1726–1735

Gregory C, R Fell, LK Belden, JB Walke. (2022) Classic hoarding cages increase gut bacterial abundance and reduce the individual immune response of honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers. Journal of Insect Science 22(2): 6

Walke JB, MH Becker, A Krinos, EA Burzynski, C Santiago, TP Umile, KPC Minbiole, LK Belden. (2020) Seasonal changes and the unexpected impact of environmental disturbance on skin bacteria of individual amphibians in a natural habitat. FEMS Microbiology Ecology doi:10.1093/femsec/fiaa248.

Jones KR, JB Walke, MH Becker, LK Belden, and MC Hughey. (2020) Time in the laboratory, but not exposure to a chytrid fungus, results in rapid change in spring peeper (Pseudacris crucifer) skin bacterial communities. In press, Ichthyology & Herpetology.

Hernandez J, C Escallón, D Medina, BJ Vernasco, JB Walke, LK Belden, IT Moore. (2020) Cloacal bacterial communities of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor): similarity within a population, but not between pair-bonded social partners. PLoS ONE 15(2): e0228982 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0228982.


Medina D, MC Hughey, JB Walke, MH Becker, K Pontarelli, S Sun, B Badgley, LK Belden. (2019) Amphibian skin fungal communities vary across host species and do not correlate with infection by a pathogenic fungus. Environmental Microbiology 21(8): 2905-2920 doi:10.1111/1462-2920.14682.

Estrada, A, MC Hughey, D Medina, EA Rebollar, JB Walke, RN Harris, LK Belden. (2019) Skin bacterial communities of neotropical treefrogs vary with local environmental conditions at the time of sampling. PeerJ - The Journal of Life and Environmental Sciences 7:e7044 doi:10.7717/peerj.7044.

Hughey MC, ER Sokol, JB Walke, MH Becker, LK Belden. (2019) Ecological correlates of large-scale turnover in the dominant members of Pseudacris crucifer skin bacterial communities. Microbial Ecology doi:10.1007/s00248-019-01372-0.


Kueneman JG, MC Bletz, G Becker, M Joseph, JG Abarca, H Archer, L Areleno, A Bataille, MH Becker, LK Belden, A Crottini, R Geffers, CFB Haddad, RN Harris, W Holden, MC Hughey, R Ibañez, M Jarek, JL Kerby, J Kielgast, A Kurabayashi, A Longo, A Loudon, D Medina, JJ Nuñez, R.G. Bina Perl, A Pinto-Tomás, FCE Rabemananjara, EA Rebollar, A Rodríguez, L Rollins-Smith, R Stevenson, CC Tebbe, G Vargas Asensio, JB Walke, SM Whitfield, K Zamudio, I Zúñiga Chaves, V McKenzie, DC Woodhams, M Vences. (2019) Community richness of amphibian skin bacteria correlates with bioclimate at the global scale. Nature Ecology & Evolution doi:10.1038/s41559-019-0798-1. *This article was in the news: Science Daily 21 Feb 2019.


Rebollar EA, A Gutiérrez-Preciado, C Noecker, A Eng, MC Hughey, D Medina, JB Walke, E Borenstein, RV Jensen, LK Belden, RN Harris. (2018) The functional repertoire of the skin microbiome of the frog Craugastor fitzingeri: Inferring potential bacterial-host-pathogen interactions from metagenomic data. Frontiers in Microbiology 9: 466. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00466.

Walke JB, MH Becker, MC Hughey, MC Swartwout, RV Jensen, LK Belden. (2017) Dominance-function relationships in the amphibian skin microbiome. Environmental Microbiology doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.13850.


Medina D, JB Walke, Z Gajewski, MH Becker, MC Swartwout, LK Belden. (2017) Culture media and individual-hosts affect the recovery of culturable bacterial diversity from amphibian skin. Frontiers in Microbiology doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01574.


Medina D, MC Hughey, MH Becker, JB Walke, TP Umile, EA Burzynski, A Iannetta, KPC Minbiole, LK Belden. (2017) Variation in metabolite profiles of amphibian skin bacterial communities across elevations in the Neotropics. Microbial Ecology doi:10.1007/s00248-017-0933-y.

Walke JB and LK Belden. (2016) Harnessing the microbiome to prevent fungal infections: lessons from amphibians. PLoS Pathogens doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005796 *Invited mini-review.


Escallón C, MH Becker, JB Walke, RV Jensen, G Cormier, LK Belden, IT Moore. (2016) Testosterone levels are positively correlated with cloacal bacterial diversity and the relative abundance of Chlamydiae in breeding male rufous-collared sparrows. Functional Ecology doi: 10.1111/1365-2435.12696.


Hughey MC, JB Walke, MH Becker, TP Umile, EA Burzynski, KPC Minbiole, AA Iannetta, CN Santiago, WA Hopkins, LK Belden. (2016) Short-term exposure to coal combustion waste has little impact on the skin microbiome of adult spring peepers, Pseudacris crucifer. Applied and Environmental Microbiology doi: 10.1128/AEM.00045-16.       


Rebollar EA, RE Antwis, MH Becker, LK Belden, MC Bletz, RM Brucker, XA Harrison, MC Hughey, JG Kueneman, AH Loudon, V McKenzie, D Medina, KPC Minbiole, LA Rollins-Smith, JB Walke, S Weiss, DC Woodhams, RN Harris. (2016) Using “omics” and integrated multi-omics approaches to guide probiotic selection to mitigate chytridiomycosis and other emerging infectious diseases. Frontiers in Microbiology doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00068.


Walke JB, MH Becker, TL Teotonio, SC Loftus, LL House, KPC Minbiole, LK Belden. (2015) Community structure and function of amphibian skin microbes: an experimental test with bullfrogs exposed to a chytrid fungus. PLoS ONE 10(10): e0139848. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139848. *This article was in the news: The Scientist,, Health News from,, Microbiome Digest


Belden LK, MC Hughey, EA Rebollar, TP Umile, SC Loftus, EA Burzynski, KPC Minbiole, LL House, RV Jensen, MH Becker, JB Walke, D Medina, R Ibáñez, and RN Harris. (2015) Panamanian frog species host unique skin bacterial communities. Frontiers in Microbiology 6:1171 doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01171


Walke JB, MH Becker, MC Hughey, MC Swartwout, RV Jensen, LK Belden. (2015) Most of the dominant members of amphibian skin bacterial communities can be readily cultured. Applied and Environmental Microbiology doi:10.1128/AEM.01486-15.  *This article was in the news: American Society for Microbiology’s website, ScienceDaily,, UK News, Science NewsLine.


Becker MH, JB Walke, S Cikanek, A Savage, N Mattheus, C Santiago, KPC Minbiole, RN Harris, LK Belden, B Gratwicke. (2015) Composition of symbiotic bacteria predicts survival in Panamanian golden frogs infected with a lethal fungus. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 282(1805): 20142881.  *This article was in the news: National Geographic Phenomena, ScienceDaily, Smithsonian Science,, EurekaAlert (AAAS), The Molecular Ecologist blog


Becker MH, JB Walke, L Murrill, D Woodhams, L Reinert, L Rollins-Smith, E Burzynski, T Umile, KPC Minbiole, LK Belden. (2015) Phylogenetic distribution of symbiotic bacteria from Panamanian amphibians that inhibit growth of the lethal fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Molecular Ecology 24(7): 1628-41.


Woodhams DC, R Alford  RE Antwis, H Archer, MH Becker, LK Belden, SC Bell, M Bletz, JH Daskin, LA Davis, SV Flechas, A Lauer, AG Peña, RN Harris, WM Holden, MC Hughey, R Ibañez, R Knight, J Kueneman, F Rabemanajara, LK Reinert, LA Rollins-Smith, F Roman-Rodriguez, SD Shaw, JB Walke, V McKenzie. (2015) Antifungal isolates database to centralize data on amphibian skin-associated bacteria and function against emerging fungal pathogens. Ecology 96: 595-595.


Walke JB, MH Becker, SC Loftus, LL House, G Cormier, RV Jensen, LK Belden. (2014) Amphibian skin may select for rare environmental microbes. The ISME Journal 8: 2207-2217. doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.77.


Hughey MC, MH Becker, JB Walke, MC Swartwout, LK Belden. (2014) Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Virginia amphibians: within and among site variation in infection. Herpetological Review 45: 428-438.


Walke JB, RN Harris, LK Reinert, LA Rollins-Smith, DC Woodhams. (2011) Social immunity in amphibians: evidence for vertical transmission of innate defenses. Biotropica 43(4): 396-400.


Lam BA, JB Walke, VT Vredenburg, RN Harris. (2010) Proportion of individuals with anti-Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis skin bacteria is associated with population persistence in the frog Rana muscosaBiological Conservation 143: 529–531.


Harris RN, RM Brucker, JB Walke, MH Becker, CR Schwantes, DC Flaherty, BA Lam, DC Woodhams, CJ Briggs, VT Vredenburg, KPC Minbiole. (2009) Skin microbes on frogs prevent morbidity and mortality caused by a lethal skin fungus.  The ISME Journal 3: 818-824.


Harris RN, A Lauer, MA Simon, JL Banning, RA Alford. (2009) Addition of antifungal skin bacteria to salamanders ameliorates the effects of chytridiomycosis.  Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 83: 11-16.


Banning JL, A Weddle, GW Wahl III, MA Simon, A Lauer, RL Walters, RN Harris. (2008) Antifungal skin bacteria, embryonic survival, and communal nesting in four-toed salamanders, Hemidactylium scutatumOecologia 156: 423-429.


Lauer A, MA Simon, JL Banning, B Lam, RN Harris. (2008) Diversity of cutaneous bacteria with antifungal activity isolated from female four-toed salamanders.  The ISME Journal 2008(2): 145-157.


Lauer A, MA Simon, JL Banning, E André, K Duncan, RN Harris. (2007) Common cutaneous bacteria from the eastern red-backed salamander can inhibit pathogenic fungi.  Copeia 2007(3): 630-640.

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